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theth hindi – an article by Hariaudh

‘theth hindi ka thaat’ kee bhoomika mein theth hindee kee paribhaasha mainne yah nishchit kee hai-

“jaise shikshit log aapas mein bolate chaalate hain, bhaasha vaisee hee ho, ganvaaree na hone paave. usamen doosaree bhaasha arabee, phaarasee, turkee, angarejee ityaadi ka koee shabd shuddh roop ya apabhransh roop mein na ho. bhaasha apabhransh sanskrt shabdon se banee ho, aur yadi koee sanskrt shabd usamen aave bhee to vahee jo atyant prachalit ho, aur jisako ek saadhaaran jan bhee bolata ho.”

is vishay mein shreemaan daaktar jee0 e0 griyarsan saahab kya likhate hain, vah bhee dekhane yogy hai. ‘adhakhila phool’ kee praaptisveekaar karate hue aap apane 17 julaee san 1905 ke patr mein likhate hain-

theth hindi kya hai?

theth hindi sanskrt kee pautree hai, ham yah kah sakate hain ki sanskrt kee putree praakrt aur praakrt kee putree theth hindee hai.

any bhaashaon kee tarah hindee bhee doosaree bhaashaon se shabd grahan karatee hai. jab vah kisee vishesh vichaar ko prakat karana chaahatee hai, aur dekhatee hai ki usake paas upayukt shabd nahin hain, us samay vah praayah aavashyak shabd sanskrt se udhaar letee hai.

pratyek theth shabd arthaat pratyek vah shabd jo ki praakrt-prasoot hai, tadbhav kahalaata hai. sanskrt se udhaar liya hua pratyek shabd jo ki praakrt se utpann nahin hai, aur is kaaran theth nahin hai, tatsam kahalaata hai. yadi tadbhav shabd na milate hon to tatsam shabd ke prayog karane mein koee aapatti nahin, ‘paap’ tatsam hai . theek-theek is arth ka dyotak koee tadbhav shabd nahin hai. atev yathaasthaan ‘paap’ ka prayog kiya ja sakata hai. kintu jahaan ek hee arth ke do shabd hain, ek tadbhav (arthaat theth) doosara tatsam, vahaan par tadbhav shabd ka hee prayog hona chaahie . ‘haath’ ke lie tadbhav shabd ‘haath’ aur tatsam shabd “hast‘ hai, atev ‘hast‘ ke sthaan par ‘haath’ ka prayog hona hee sangat hai.

yah smaran rakhana chaahie ki pratyek tatsam shabd udhaar liya hua hai. yah udhaar hindee ko apanee daadee se lena padata hai. yadi main apane sambandhiyon tatha mitron se praayah rn lene kee aadat daaloon to main vinasht ho jaoonga. isee prakaar yadi hindee us avastha mein bhee jab ki usake lie rn lena nitaant aavashyak nahin hai, rn lene ka svabhaav daalatee rahee to vah bhee vinasht ho jaavegee. is kaaran main balapoorvak yah sammati deta hoon ki hindee ke lekhak jahaan tak sambhav ho theth shabdon (arthaat tadbhav shabdon) ka prayog karen, kyonki ve hindee ke svaabhaavik ang athava anshabhoot saadhan hain. udhaar liye hue sanskrt (tatsam) shabdon ka jitana hee kam prayog ho utana hee achchha. main yah dekhakar prasann hoon ki aapane yah kar dikhaaya ki kitanee saphalata ke saath aisa kiya ja sakata hai. main yah prakat kar dena chaahata hoon ki shabdon ke prayog karane kee kasautee yah hai ki ham dekhen ki yah shabd tadbhav hai, na yah ki tatsam.. kaaran isaka yah hai ki bahut se tadbhav shabd aise hain jo ki jyon ke tyon vaise hee hain, jaise ki sanskrt mein hain. jaise-

sanskrt praakrt tadbhav (theth hindee)
vanan vanan van

yahaan tatsam shabd bhee van (ya ban) hai, parantu ban bhee achchha theth hindee shabd hai, kyonki van keval sanskrt hee nahin hai, varan sanskrt se praakrt mein hokar aaya hindee shabd hai. yah bilkul saadhaaran baat hai ki devadatt ka pautr bhee devadatt hee kaha jaave, aur yahee baat hindee ke vishay mein bhee kahee ja sakatee hai.

neeche kuchh any roop bhee diye jaate hain.

sanskrt praakrt tadbhav (theth hindee) tatsam
jangalah jangalo jangal jangal ya jangal
vilaasah vilaaso vilaas vilaas ya bilaas
saarah saaro saar saar
ekah ekko ek ek
samarah samaro samar samar
gunah guno gun gun ya gun

isee tarah se aur bhee bahut se shabd hain. atev praakrt ka jaanana aavashyak hai, aur main pratyek manushy ko jo ki hindee kee unnati karana chaahata hai yah sammati bhee doonga ki vah praakrt ka adhyayan kare, kyonki vah hindee kee maata hai. yadi aap jananee ko jaanate hain to ladakee ko achchhee tarah samajh sakate hain.

“maay gun gaay pita gun ghod.
bahut nahin to thodahi thod.”

is lekh ko padhakar aap yah samajh gaye honge ki mainne jo theth hindee kee paribhaasha likhee hai, lagabhag usake vishay mein vahee vichaar daaktar saahab ke bhee hain. bhaaratendu baaboo harishchandr ne ‘hindee bhaasha’ naam kee ek pustak likhee hai, usamen unhonne baarah prakaar kee hindee bhaasha likhee hai, usaka udaaharan bhee diya hai. usake kuchh sheershak ye hain-

1—jisamen sanskrt ke bahut shabd hain,
2—jisamen sanskrt ke shabd thode hain,
3–jo shuddh hindee hai,
4—jisamen kisee bhaasha ke shabd milane ka niyam nahin hai,
5—jisamen phaarasee shabd vishesh hain, ityaadi.

inake udaaharan neeche diye jaate hain.

nambar–1

‘aha ! yah kaisee apoorv aur vichitr varshartu saamprat praapt huee hai. anavart aakaash meghaachchhann rahata hai, aur chaturdik kujhjhatika-paat se netr kee gati stambhit ho gayee hai, pratikshan abhr mein chanchala punshchalee stree kee bhaanti nartan karatee hai.’

nambar-2

‘sab videshee log ghar phir aaye, aur vyaapaariyon ne nauka laadana chhod diya, pul toot gaye, baandh khul gaye, pank se prthvee bhar gayee, pahaadee nadiyon ne apane bal dikhaaye, bahut vrksh samet kool tod giraaye . sarp bilon se baahar nikale, nadiyon ne maryaada bhang kar dee, aur svatantr striyon kee bhaanti umad chaleen.’

nambar-3

‘par mere preetam ab tak ghar na aaye, kya us des mein barasaat nahin hotee, ya kisee saut ke phand mein pad gaye. kahaan to vah pyaar kee baaten, kahaan ek sang aisa bhool jaana ki chitthee bhee na bhijavaana. ha! main kahaan jaoon, kaisee karoon, meree to aisee koee muhabolee sahelee bhee nahin ki usase dukhada ro sunaoon, kuchh idhar udhar kee baaton se hee jee bahalaoon.’

nambar–4

‘aisee to andheree rata usamen akelee rahana, koee haal poochhane vaala bhee paas nahin, rah-rah kar jee ghabadaata hai, koee khabar lene bhee nahin aata, kaun aur is vipatti mein sahaay hokar jaan bachaata.’

nambar–5

‘khuda is aafat se jee bachaaye, pyaare ka munh jald dikhaaye, ki jaan mein jaan aaye. phir vahee aish kee ghadiyaan aaven, shaboroz dilavar kee suhabat rahe, ranjogam door ho, dil masaroor ho.’

ant mein aap likhate hain-

“ham is sthaan par vaad nahin kiya chaahate, ki kaun bhaasha uttam hai, aur vahee likhanee chaahiye. par haan mujhase koee anumati poochhe to main yah kahoonga ki nambar 2 ra 3 likhane ke yogy hain.”

namoone jo oopar diye gaye hain, unake dekhane se gyaat hoga ki nambar 2 saral hindee hai jisamen ki thode sanskrt shabd hain arthaat jisamen tatsam shabd kam hain, aur nambar 3 theth hindee hai jisamen bilakul tadbhav shabd hain, aur inheen donon ko ukt mahoday ne likhane yogy batalaaya hai. kahana nahin hoga ki shuddh shabd aur theth shabd ka ek hee arth hai aur aisee avastha mein bhaaratendujee ne bhee ek prakaar se theth hindee kee paribhaasha shabd-vinyaas dvaara vahee kee hai jo main oopar kar aaya hoon.

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